Egypt

Saint Christopher the Dog Headed Saint by Chris Hall

Saint Christopher was a Christian martyr who lived during the reign of Roman Emperor Decius (reigned 249 – 251).  Christopher's name, in Greek (Christoforos), translates as “Christ-bearer.”  He earned this title for his act of carrying a child, who was unknown to him, across a river.  The child later revealed himself to be Christ and Christopher became the patron saint of travelers.

According to legend, Christopher originally went by the name Reprobus, which roughly translates as “Scoundrel.”  He was a Canaanite 5 cubits (7.5 feet (2.3 m)) tall and had a fearsome face like a dog.  In the New Testament, the Canaanites were reported to eat human flesh and to bark like dogs.  While serving the King of Canaan, he decided to leave and serve “the greatest king there was.”  He went to the king who was reported to be the greatest (historically, it is thought that Reprobus joined with the Roman Army, the Third Valerian Cohort of Marmantae, in North Africa), but one day he saw the king cross himself at the mention of the devil.  Learning that the king feared the devil, Reprobus left to look for devil, and serve him.  Soon he came across a band of marauders, lead by a man who declared himself to be “the devil.”  Reprobus joined their party.  But when he saw his new master avoid a cross found at a fork in the road, he found out the devil feared Christ, and so Reprobus left him in order to seek Christ.

Reprobus met with a hermit who taught him about the Christian faith.  He asked the hermit how he might serve Christ.  When the hermit suggested fasting and prayer, Reprobus replied that he was unable to perform these duties.  Next, the hermit suggested that because of his size and strength, Reprobus could serve Christ by ferrying people across a dangerous river that lay nearby.  It seemed that many people had drowned there while attempting to cross.  The hermit promised that this service would be pleasing to Christ.  After Reprobus had performed this service for some time, a little child approached and asked if he might take him across the river.  During the crossing, the river had swelled and the current strengthened.  The child who Reprobus was carrying on his shoulders had also become as heavy as lead and Reprobus barely made it across.  When they finally reached the other side, he said to the child, “You have put me in the greatest danger.  I do not think the whole world could have been as heavy on my shoulders as you were.”  The child replied, “You had on your shoulders not only the whole world, but Him who made it.  I am Christ, your king, whom you are serving by this work.”  The child then vanished.

Reprobus later visited the city of Lycia (in modern Turkey) where he comforted the Christians who were being martyred.  Brought before the local king (historically, the governor of Antioch), he refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods.  The king tried to win him over with the promise of wealth and by sending two beautiful women to tempt him.  Reprobus, instead, converted the women to Christianity.  The king then ordered his execution.  Various attempts on his life failed, but eventually Reprobus was decapitated.  Reprobus was a stranger in Antioch, and his name was not generally known.  He was given the name and title Christoforos, “Christ-bearer,” for his deeds.  Some historians have speculated that Saint Christopher's remains may have been taken to Alexandria by Peter of Attalia to be buried.  

Because Saint Christopher had offered protection to travelers and against sudden death, he quickly grew in popularity.  Many churches had placed images and statues of him in places where he could be easily seen, usually opposite the south door.  In the West he is usually depicted as a giant man, with the child Christ on his shoulder and a staff in one hand.  In Eastern Othordox icons, however, Saint Christopher is often depicted as a giant with the head of a dog.  The origin of the dog head depiction, which, incidentally, is called cynocephaly, can be traced to two sources.  According to legend, Reprobus was captured in combat on the border of Egypt and Libya before he switched sides and enlisted in the Roman Army.  He was recorded as being a giant and having the head of a dog instead of a man.  This was in addition to the Byzantine misinterpretation of the Latin name for his nationality, Cananeus (Canaanite), for canineus, which means canine.

Saint Sisoes and Alexander the Great's Bones by Chris Hall

After the fall of Constantinople in 1452 to the Ottoman Turks, there appeared to the newly subjugated Greeks an image of the 4th century ascetic, Saint Sisoes, lamenting over over the bones of the pagan emperor, Alexander the Great.  This strange icon is called the Astonishment of Saint Sisoes, and in it Saint Sisoes not only contemplates the death of a man, but also an entire earthly empire.  The icon first started to appear in Greek monasteries, but quickly spread to other monasteries throughout the former Byzantine Empire.  The inscription accompanying these icons reads:

Sisoes, the great ascetic, before the tomb of Alexander, King of the Greeks, who was once covered in glory.  Astonished, he mourns for the vicissitudes of time and the transience of glory, and tearfully declaims thus:

“The mere sight of you, tomb, dismays me and causes my heart to shed tears, as I contemplate the debt we, all men, owe.  How can I possibly stand it?  Oh, death!  Who can evade you?”

The icon, then, is a Greek memento mori (Latin: “Remember your mortality”), made more powerful by showing one of the greatest rulers in history – a  man who conquered half of the known world – as a pile of bones.  This recalls the famous quote, from an unknown source, on Alexander the Great which says, “A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient.”

The pre-Christian Roman Emperors all believed their lineage could be traced to Alexander the Great, and this belief endured with the conversion of Constantine to Christianity, all the way through to the final emperor, Constantine the XI.  Alexander the Great was looked upon as the prime exemplar of earthly governance (a tradition which continued through the Middle Ages, with the Alexander Romances).  The icons of Saint Sisoes Astonished Before the Bones of Alexander the Great, then, was not just a reminder of death as the great equalizer, or the great brought low, but of the passing of an entire Empire, stretching back almost 2,000 years.

The location of Alexander the Great's body is mystery.  After his death in 323 BCE, the emperor was ceremoniously buried in the city that bore his name, Alexandria in Egypt.  The tomb was a place of pilgrimage for the pagan Emperors, with Alexander being worshiped as a kind of demi-god.  This all stopped when Christianity was made the official state religion of the Empire during the rule of Theodosius.  Without imperial patronage, pagan shrines and temple slowly fell into disuse.  In some areas, however, such as in Egypt, old pagan shrines and temples were destroyed quickly, and with extreme prejudice.  While Alexander the Great was held in great esteem by the Christians for his earthly accomplishments, they drew the line at worship.  It was under these circumstances that Alexander the Great's tomb disappeared, sometime in the late 4th century.  

Sisoes, as an Egyptian living during this time, might very well have witnessed the destruction of Alexander's tomb.  Saint Sisoes the Great, as he would be called after his death, was a solitary, ascetic monk, living in the Egyptian desert, in a cave sanctified by his predecessor, Saint Anthony the Great.  He lived there for sixty years, seeking the spiritual sublime, and was said to have been granted the gift of wonder-working, so that by his prayers he was once even able to restore a dead child back to life.

Coptic Art by Chris Hall

I’ve always loved early Christian Art, from the late Roman era to the Byzantine and Romanesque.  Somewhere in between this time period, and nearly forgotten, is Coptic Art.  Coptic Art is essentially early Christian Art in Egypt.  Coptic art and culture is heavily influenced by Hellenistic (Greek) and Egyptian art and culture.  Historically, the Coptic Period began around the 3rd century with the Roman occupation of Egypt, until the Muslim Conquest in the 7th century, although Coptic art and culture can be found as early as the 1st century and as late as the 9th century CE.  Christians never left Egypt, however, and there was a brief demand for new Coptic icons in the mid 18th century.  

Icon painting has a lengthy tradition in Coptic Egypt, dating back to St. Luke the evangelist, author of the Gospel of Luke in the Bible.  Born in Antioch Syria, Luke was not a witness to Jesus teachings, but was among the first generation of Christians afterward and traveled with Paul to Rome to spread Christianity.  According to tradition, Luke wrote his gospel around 60 CE.  Luke also painted the portraits of Mary, mother of Jesus, and of Paul and Peter, making him the first icon painter.  Luke resided for a time in Egypt and contributed to Coptic culture.  Luke was tortured before being hanged from an olive tree on his last missionary trip in Beothia, Greece.  

The Coptics followed Egyptian burial traditions and mummified their dead (the Greeks would cremate their dead).  Coptic artists would paint portraits of the dead in encaustic (pigment suspended in wax) and in tempera (pigment suspended in egg yolk) on to wooden boards, which they would then attach to the mummified bodies, acting as a funeral mask.  This tradition is known as Fayum (or Faiyum) mummy portraiture, due to the majority of the mummy portraits being found in the Faiyum Basin.  Unlike Egyptian aesthetics, the Fayum mummy portraits are more naturalistic, following Greek tradition.  Due to the hot and dry Egyptian climate, the mummy portraits are often very well preserved, retaining their brilliant colors as if freshly painted.  I’ve always been haunted by these portraits.  Looking at the apparent age of the portraits, it seems the vast majority of the dead are very young, some are even children.  Examination of the mummies confirms that the age distribution of the dead reflects the low life expectancy of the time.  Not everyone could afford a mummy portrait, however.  The vast majority of mummy portraits belong to the affluent upper class, high ranking military personnel, civil servants, and religious dignitaries.  Fayum mummy portraits were lost to European consciousness until the Italian explorer Pietro della Valle rediscovered them in a visit to Saqqara-Memphis in 1615.  

Alchemy and Art by Chris Hall

Painting is not about the product, but about the process – the philosophy that drives my life. Elin Pendleton


I’ve always thought there to be a lot of parallels between Alchemy and Art, particularly painting.  Art starts as an idea, an intangible thing, pulled from the air.  It is struck with the electricity of the mind and forged in the fire of the heart.  The idea flows hot from the body, down the arms to the hands, charging the paintbrush with its task.  This is the catalyst, meeting the plastic medium, oil paint in liquid form.  Ideas are mutable, and so is wet paint.  As the mind cools, so does the paint and it begins to dry, transforming itself into a solid, idea incarnate.   This is how art is made.  This is the painting process.  

Art also has parallels to Alchemy in that the Alchemist’s true goal was spiritual enlightenment (the Philosopher’s Stone) through a process of self discovery.  Transmuting gold from lead was a byproduct of the process.  Similarly, the Artist can use the art making process to obtain spiritual growth and enlightenment, with the byproduct being a work of art.  The Alchemist’s and Artist’s true work, then, is “Transmuting the lead of matter / Into bullets of spiritual gold.”   (From Alex Grey’s poem “The Seer”).

The word alchemy is from Arabic, originally ‘Al-khemet’ which means “from Egypt,” where Alchemy was originally practiced.  Egypt was once known as “Khemet” in ancient times, which means “Black Land,” due to the fertile soil found along the banks of the Nile River.  This is also where Alchemy got labeled as a “Black Art.”  Alchemy is traditionally thought to have been invented by the Egyptian god Thoth, the founder of science, religion, mathematics, geometry, philosophy, medicine, and magic.  We know that Cleopatra was a practicing Alchemist; among her personal affects were manuscripts pertaining to the transformation of base metal to gold.  Over the millennia Alchemy would adopt aspects of Greek philosophy, Christian mysticism, the Jewish Cabbala, Arabic science, numerology, and astrology.  Famous alchemists have included the likes of; Pythagoras, Galileo, Da-vinci, Issac Newton, and Napoleon.  From its ancient occult origins, Alchemy would become the basis of modern day Chemistry and Jungian Psychoanalysis.

Besides the promise of gold, alchemy also promised the possibility of creating a healing substance called the Elixir of Life, able to cure all diseases, and, if pure enough, the possibility of immortality.  The famous alchemist St. Germaine is reputed to have found the Elixir of Life and to have benefited from its use, living over three hundred years.  Gold and immortality, however, are only a byproduct.  The Philosopher’s Stone is the real goal of the spiritually minded alchemist.  The Philosopher’s Stone brought with it spiritual purification and perfection of the soul.  Gold, being considered the purest of all elements, was valued more for what it represented symbolically than what it represented as monetary value. When gold is successfully manufactured, it is only the incidental byproduct of a much more successful experiment, the manufacture of the Philosopher’s Stone, and purification of the soul.   Success in the physical realm of existence meant success in the spiritual realm as well.  Gold becomes the physical proof that the Alchemist’s quest was successful.  

To prevent the abuse of Alchemy for selfish means and to also protect themselves against persecution from the Church, Alchemical manuscripts were often encoded or written in riddles.  In some cases these Alchemical manuscripts are not even written out, but drawn as a series of symbolic illustrations.  An example of the later would the legendary “Book with No Words,” reputed to be so complex in its symbolism, that it would take two lifetimes to master, one to decipher, and one to understand.  

To obtain the Philosopher’s Stone, one had to use the seven basic Alchemical processes, in three different stages. Each process has its own symbolic, psychological, spiritual, and physical manifestations. The original Alchemists believed that all matter was divisible into the pure elements of fire, air, water, and earth.  The process of manipulating matter through these four elements mirrored the process spiritual purification, which would lead to the discovery of the Philosopher’s Stone and enlightenment.

Nigredo is the first stage on the Alchemical path, and encompasses the first two processes of Calcinatio and Solutio.  Nigredo means ‘blackening.’  Characterized by breaking down matter, the Alchemist is compelled to look deep within themselves and destroy the parts of the ego that would be in the way of inner growth.  Nigredo begins as we truly and sincerely begin to walk the path of transformation. The first step faced by all who desire to know themselves is to face the ego, and in particular, its means sacrifice, of sabotaging our desire for immediate worldly success.  Psychologically, Nigredo is a process of suffering.  Depression is a common occurrence.

Calcinatio- Symbolic of fire, it is literally the process of heating or burning.  A solid can be subjected to intense heat in order to drive off water and any other parts that may volatize, producing a fine, dry powder.  Another example would be to add water to quicklime (plaster of paris).  The water starts a chemical reaction that produces heat. Alchemists believed that quicklime contained hidden fire that was only activated by water.  Alchemists could also use sulfuric acid to burn into matter in the Calcinatio process.  Calcinatio is used in encaustic painting, when the solid encaustic wax is heated into a liquid and then mixed with pigment in order to paint.  The infusing of fire can be seen symbolically as a life force, the divine spark. Burning can also be seen as a purification rite, ridding a substance of impurities.  Calcinatio occurs naturally in life as a process where our egos are gradually worn down by the inevitable challenges in life.  Ideally, in the spiritual path, one hastens the Calcinatio process, rather than letting it be drawn out over the course of a whole life.  Through Calcinatio, stubbornness, pride, and arrogance are worn down.  Psychologically, the process relates to the cleansing of the body and the destruction of the ego, as well as burning away all the excesses gained from over-indulgence.  In Alchemical symbolism this process is sometimes represented by bringing down a tyrannical king. 

Solutio- Dealing with processes pertaining to water or any physical process producing a liquid, Solutio can transform a solid to liquid form, a solution or a suspension.  Solutio is used by painters when they mix raw pigment into a solution or when they cut thick paint with a medium.  Water is thought of physically as prima materia, the first matter.  Symbolically it is shown as the womb, and the process of Solutio as returning matter to the womb for rebirth.  In many myths water is the original matter from which the world is created.  Taken further, science shows today that all living life came from the sea and the human body is composed primarily of water.  In Solutio, the Alchemist symbolically drowns.  Psychologically this stage represents a deep encounter with our subconscious mind.  Carl Jung would use Alchemical symbolism to develop his ideas of the collective unconscious.  Through Solutio, the Alchemist lets go of control and allows the surfacing of buried material.  This stage is often characterized by emotions of grief, as the Alchemist allow themselves to relive painful incidents from the past.

Albedo means ‘whitening’. Albedo is the second stage on the Alchemist’s path.  If Nigredo is destruction of the ego and death by drowning, then Albedo prepares the Alchemist for rebirth.  Albedo involves the creation of division, necessary for the further unification of opposites.  Albedo also refers to the inner light that arises in the face of genuine suffering brought about through Nigredo.  The white dove is a common symbol for this stage.  Albedo corresponds to the processes of Separatio, Conjunctio, Mortificatio, and Sublimatio.  In Albedo the Alchemist creates coherence and clarity via division into opposites, and then, by re-unifying these opposites, becomes reborn.  

Separatio- Separatio is a purging process, literally the separation of composite matter into its more useful and pure parts.  An example of this would be the separation of gasoline from crude oil or metals from its crude ore either by heating, pulverizing, or any other chemical process.  Filtration, evaporation, and operations using a centrifuge are also classic examples of this process.  In many myths of creation, order is pulled out from a chaos of mismatched elements.  Separatio is also seen as the purging of unwanted bad habits.  Psychologically, Separatio refers to the need to make our thoughts and emotions more distinct by isolating them from other thoughts and emotions.  This stage represents the need to focus on what has been revealed in us after Nigredo, so we can get clear on what precisely needs to be given attention, and what needs to be purged.  The process of Separatio is entirely concerned with the need to both see and take responsibility for the darker aspects within ourselves.  A common symbol for this process is the black crow, which in its color denotes the dying away of the false through Nigredo, as well as the positive possibilities for the future symbolized by the crow’s capacity to fly.  

Conjunctio- This is both the process of joining two unlike and opposite substances and the resulting product of a third substance of altogether different properties.  It is mainly through this process that the groundwork was laid for modern chemistry, nuclear physics, and modern psychoanalysis of unconscious imagery.  Conjunctio occurs when the Artist mixes their paint.  Like Aristotle, the alchemists believed that there must be a balance in all things. They concerned themselves with the fine lines between such things as courage and foolhardiness, prudence and miserliness, passion and fanaticism. By recognizing these lines both internally and chemically, perfection (the Philosopher's Stone) could be found. In the end, it is the balance of unlike things and a union of opposites that the alchemists sought.  The symbol most often used to express this ideal was the hermaphrodite. When consulting an old manuscript and the symbol of the hermaphrodite appeared, then it was shown that a union of opposites was required, either in process or chemical.  For example, fire (Calcinatio) and water (Solutio), or sulphur (fire) and mercury (water).   Conjunctio is also symbolized by the sexual union of male and female.  Just as when a man and woman copulate, a new being is born completely different from its parents.  Indeed, the eastern Alchemists of India went so far as to lose the external chemical quest and to pursue an internal quest for spiritual purity with the use of ritualized sex.  But to most Alchemists, the masculine and the feminine are not principles determined by sex or gender. It is mainly meant as a guide to find a complimenting essence.  Alchemical symbolism sometimes refers to this as the marriage of the Sun (spirit, masculine) and the Moon (soul, feminine).  The Alchemists referred to this union as the “Marriage of the King and Queen,” and they referred to the result of the Conjunctio as the "Philosopher's Child" or "Lesser Stone." 

Mortificatio (or Putreficatio) - Perhaps the strangest of the alchemical processes, it pertains to death and rotting.  In Mortificatio the matter in question is symbolically seem as tortured and killed by various alchemical operations.  It is also symbolic of penance or just punishment. It was not at all seen as cruel and mean spirited.  Saint Augustine would say, ''Punishment, when deserved, is Love.”  Mortificatio is the next logical step.  Literally it is the process of rotting.  Organic elements would be left to decompose in a controlled environment.  Chemically the process is similar to fermentation.  Another example of this would be a compost heap.  Symbolically the process is associated with psychological darkness, mutilation, and defeat.  It is symbolized in St. John of the Cross's poem “Dark Night of the Soul.”  Spiritually, this refers to a kind of inner death process in which old, discarded elements of the personality are allowed to rot and decompose.  This process can involve difficult mental states such as depression.  Mortificatio is followed by a stage of rebirth in a process called Sublimatio.  

Sublimatio (or Distillation) - Sublimatio is a process pertaining to air and the separation of substances.  It is derived by the physical process of heating matter and having it pass directly into a gas state. When this is done the gas ascends to the top of the vessel where it reconstitutes in an upper cooling region.  It has a long history, being used for the production of such things as alcohol and gasoline.  Sublimatio is an elevating process, symbolic of giving up the ghost and the shedding of impurities.  It is a process of purification and an internal quest for spiritual perfection.  Here, the Alchemist undergoes a type of rebirth resulting from the deep willingness to let go of all elements that no longer serve spiritual evolution.  Sublimatio can be achieved through many activities such as intense prayer, break down of the personality, and deep meditation.  The process is symbolized in illustration with ladders, stairs, flying, and mountains, anything that suggests ascending.  Psychologically, Sublimatio does not result in escapism, but rather in being able to deal with seemingly mundane things with integrity.  A common Alchemical symbol for the result of Sublimatio is the Green Lion eating the Sun.  It suggests a healthy triumph and an embracing of a limitless source of energy.  Sublimatio is necessary to ensure no impurities from the inflated ego are incorporated into the next and final stage.  

Rubedo, meaning ‘reddening’, is the final stage. Whereas Nigredo and Albedo were concerned with the chaotic void and division, Rubedo is entirely concerned with unity, with the result of this unity being the Philosopher’s Stone.   However, this wholeness is not a mere return to the Primal state.  Rather, we re-capture the primal unity of the child-like state, while at the same time achieving something much more, the mature wisdom of a sage.  The cycle of death and rebirth is finally broken.

Coagulatio (or Greater Conjunctio) - Belonging to the symbolic process of Earth, Coagulatio results from the combination of Fire, Water, and Air.  Physically, it is the process of converting other matter into a solid.  Cooling a liquid can produce a solid, hence water to ice.  A solid that has been dissolved into a solvent will reappear when the liquid part has evaporated, hence salt from salt water.  Heat can also produce a solid, such as the coagulation of the egg in a pan when fried.  Coagulatio occurs in the drying of paint.  On a symbolic level to produce a solid is to fix an ego, to localize and make concrete an identity, and manifest in the flesh.  Several creation myths describe how dry land and creatures sprung from the waters of an endless sea.  Coagulatio is the ultimate marriage of Heaven and Hell and is the pinnacle point in the Alchemist’s career.  The end result is the Philosopher’s Stone, and is often symbolized by the Phoenix, the bird that has arisen from the ashes.   Coagulatio, when properly performed, is a return to the Garden of Eden; it means existence on a higher level and being in tune with the divine mind.  In other traditions it is referred to as Enlightenment, or Nirvana.  

In closing, I hope that I have adequately explained the many physical and psychological parallels between Alchemy and Art.  I find the process of making Art to be spiritually rewarding.  It is a path of self discovery that I hope will continue to pay dividends into the future.  Halfway down my Alchemical – Spiritual journey in life, I believe I am, appropriately, somewhere in the middle stages, around Conjunctio.  It is a journey that can be spiritually taxing at times, which is a challenge for me, as I am apparently a tough study; I have gone through the painful Nigredo stage at least half a dozen times or more.  Still, I have every reason to be optimistic that I might just someday be lucky enough to find the Artistic equivalent of the Philosopher’s Stone, if I continue to create and make Art.

Finished on my 39th birthday, 5:56 AM, December 16th 2014.