Mark Rothko was an American Color Field and Abstract Expressionist painter. With Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, his considered to be one of the most famous postwar American artists. Rothko's art grew from representational to amorphous mythological subjects, to pure abstract, non-objective fields of color and light. Rothko was born in Dvinsk, Russia (now Latvia), in 1903. Fearing that Mark Rothko's older brothers might be drafted into the army on the eve of the First World War, the Rothko family emigrated to Portland, Oregon, in the United States.
Rothko received a scholarship to Yale, but when the scholarship was not renewed after his first year, Rothko worked as a waiter and delivery boy to pay for his education. He found the Yale community to be elitist and racist, dropped out at the end of his sophomore year, and moved to New York City to study art. Rothko enrolled in the New York School of Design, where he worked with instructor and abstract artist Arshile Gorky. Rothko thought Gorky a domineering figure, and so he left to take classes at the Art Student's League, taught by cubist artist and instructor Max Weber. Under Max Weber, Rothko began to view art as a tool for emotional and religious expression. Rothko's early influences were the works of the German Expressionists and the surrealist artist, Paul Klee. Rothko also met fellow artists Adolph Gottlieb and Barnett Newman. The Rothko family did not understand his decision to be an artist, especially in the middle of the Great Depression. Rothko, however, like Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning, many other artists, found employment with the Works Progress Administration.
When World War Two erupted, Rothko felt that a new art was needed with a new subject matter that would have social impact, yet would also be able to transcend the confines of political symbols and values. Rothko also wanted this new subject matter to complement his growing interest in form, space, and color. He temporarily stopped painting in 1940 and immersed himself in studying Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough, Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, the works of Carl Jung, T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Thomas Mann, and others. From this was born Rothko's “Mythomorphic Abstractionism” period.
Rothko's interest in using mythology to transcend the troubled times was not unique. Gottlieb, Newman, and Pollock were at a similar crossroads in their art, using mythological symbolism to bridge the gap between representation and pure abstraction. They were all interested in dream theory and the archetypes of the collective unconscious, and believed that by using mythological symbolism they could transcend specific history and culture.
Rothko had a noble goal in mind for his art. He wanted to relieve modern man's spiritual emptiness, which he believed resulted from a lack of mythology. Rothko felt his art could free unconscious energies in the viewer, which were previously liberated by mythological images, symbols, and rituals. In this respect, Rothko viewed himself as a modern day “mythmaker,” and proclaimed that "the exhilarated tragic experience is for me the only source of art.
Rothko debuted his new paintings in 1942, at a show in a New York City Macy's department store. In response to a negative critical review of the show by the New York Times, Rothko and Gottlieb issued a manifesto where they stated, "We favor the simple expression of the complex thought. We are for the large shape because it has the impact of the unequivocal. We wish to reassert the picture plane. We are for flat forms because they destroy illusion and reveal truth." Rothko and Gottlieb also fired a broadside toward those who would prefer a less challenging art, writing that their work “must insult anyone who is spiritually attuned to interior decoration.”
In June of 1943, Rothko and his wife Edith separated. Rothko suffered a long depression following his divorce. Thinking that a change of scenery would help, Rothko returned to Portland. From Portland, Rothko traveled to Berkeley, where he met and befriended the artist Clyfford Still. At this time, Still had already eschewed surrealist representation in favor of pure, non-objective abstraction. Rothko looked at Still's work and saw his future. Rothko's experiments in unconscious symbolism had run its course; abstraction would be the next step.
In 1945 Rothko painted Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea, showing his new-found interest in abstraction. His new work possessed a more organic structure, often featuring blurred blocks of various colors. They were devoid of any reference to the figure or the landscape. Rothko thought that these new works, by shedding figurative qualities, had a life force of their own and contained the “breath of life.” Rothko discovered his trademark symmetrical rectangular blocks of two or three opposing and contrasting, yet complementary colors in the winter of 1949. He also began to use large, vertically formatted canvases, which he intended to make the viewer feel “enveloped within” the painting.
Rothko viewed his work as living entities. As he began to achieve success, he also began to be increasingly protective of his works, turning down several potentially important sales and exhibition opportunities. Of this, Rothko would write, “A picture lives by companionship, expanding and quickening in the eyes of the sensitive observer. It dies by the same token. It is therefore a risky and unfeeling act to send it out into the world. How often it must be permanently impaired by the eyes of the vulgar and the cruelty of the impotent who would extend the affliction universally!”
Beginning in 1950, Rothko started to meet with financial success and fame. Despite his success, Rothko felt himself isolated and a sense of being misunderstood as an artist began to developed. He feared that the people purchasing his paintings were doing so simply out of fashion and that the true purpose of his work was not being grasped by his collectors, critics, and audience. Compounding his isolation, many of his friends began to abandon him, Rothko's new fame and patrons not sitting well with them. Old friend Clyfford Still even asked for the return of his of gifted paintings.
Rothko defended himself against accusations of selling out. He maintained that his work was “only in expressing basic human emotions — tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on. And the fact that a lot of people break down and cry when confronted with my pictures shows that I can communicate those basic human emotions . . . The people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them. And if you, as you say, are moved only by their color relationship, then you miss the point.”
Some people, however, did understand Rothko's work. New friend and poet Stanley Kunitz saw Rothko as "a primitive, a shaman who finds the magic formula and leads people to it." Great poetry and painting, Kunitz believed, both had "roots in magic, incantation, and spell-casting" and were, at their core, ethical and spiritual. Rothko was insistent upon the proper interpretation of his work and worked hard to spread his message. In 1958 Mark Rothko spoke at the Pratt Institute and gave his recipe for a work of art:
1. There must be a clear preoccupation with death - intimations of mortality... Tragic art, romantic art, etc., deals with the knowledge of death. 2. Sensuality. Our basis of being concrete about the world. It is a lustful relationship to things that exist. 3. Tension. Either conflict or curbed desire. 4. Irony, This is a modern ingredient - the self-effacement and examination by which a man for an instant can go on to something else. 5. Wit and play... for the human element. 6. The ephemeral and chance... for the human element. 7. Hope. 10% to make the tragic concept more endurable. I measure these ingredients very carefully when I paint a picture. It is always the form that follows these elements and the picture results from the proportions of these elements.
That same year the beverage company Joseph Seagram and Sons had completed their new building on Park Avenue. Rothko agreed to provide paintings for the building's new luxury restaurant, The Four Seasons. Other three months Rothko completed forty paintings in a series of dark reds and browns. Shortly afterward, Rothko, with his new wife Mell, sailed to Europe aboard the SS Independence where he joked with Harper's Magazine publisher John Fischer that his true intention for the Seagram's murals was to paint "something that will ruin the appetite of every son-of-a-bitch who ever eats in that room.” He hoped that his paintings would make the restaurant's patron's "feel that they are trapped in a room where all the doors and windows are bricked up, so that all they can do is butt their heads forever against the wall." Upon his return to New York, Rothko and Mell visited the nearly completed Four Seasons restaurant. Rothko became upset with the restaurant's dining atmosphere, which he considered pretentious and inappropriate for his work. Rothko quit the project and returned his cash advance to the Seagram and Sons Company.
By the 1960's the art world began to turn away from Abstract Expressionism, turning their gaze toward the next big thing, Pop Art, particularly the work of Warhol, Lichtenstein, and Rosenquist. Rothko labeled Pop artists as “charlatans and young opportunists,” and wondered aloud during a 1962 Pop Art exhibition, “Are the young artists plotting to kill us all?” On looking at Jasper Johns' flag paintings, Rothko said, “We worked for years to get rid of all that.” Rothko knew that his fame would be fleeting, and that he would eventually be replaced, but what he could not fathom was that he would be replaced by Pop Art, which he found sterile and vapid.
Rothko spent his last years working on a commission for a chapel in Houston, Texas, which he believed would be the artistic pinnacle of his career. He would never see the installation of his work. Rothko and his wife Mell separated on New Year's Day, 1969, and he moved into his studio. On February 25th, 1970, studio assistant Oliver Steindecker found Rothko's body lying dead on the floor in front of the sink, covered in blood. He had sliced open his arms. An autopsy also revealed that he had overdosed on anti-depressants. He was sixty-six years old. On February 28th, 1971, at the Rothko chapel dedication in Houston, Dominique de Menil said, "We are cluttered with images and only abstract art can bring us to the threshold of the divine." I believe Rothko would have agreed with him. Initially the chapel was to be Roman Catholic, but within three years the chapel expanded to become non-denominational.