Art is difficult, it’s not entertainment. Anselm Kiefer
To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric. Theodor Adorno
Born just a few months before the end of World War II in 1945, Kiefer grew up among the ash and ruins of postwar Germany. Kiefer’s work directly addresses Adorno’s statement, that “writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric,” and questions how beauty and culture can continue to have any meaning. Kiefer also wants to understand how the Nazis leveraged art and culture into killing. In this respect, Kiefer’s body of work is primarily reflective of the new German word Vergangenheitsbewältigung. Invented in the late 1950’s, Vergangenheitsbewältigung translates roughly as “struggle to come to terms with the past.” Kiefer believes that one can not progress into the future until the past has been properly dealt with. Although much of his early work addresses issues specific to Germany, his output in more recent years has expanded into more universal concerns.
Anselm Kiefer began making work in 1969 and would become a student of Joseph Beuys. Kiefer’s first opus, his Occupations, had him traveling around to different sites in Europe, sometimes in his father’s Army uniform, and then having himself photographed giving the Nazi salute. It may seem a bit shocking, but there is a moral heart to Kiefer’s work. Kiefer wants to ensure that the horrors of the Holocaust remain fresh in collective memory.
Some of Kiefer's Occupations. Click to enlarge the images.
In his paintings and sculpture, Kiefer reexamines German history, mythology, and culture, everything from Wagner operas, German Romanticism, the poetry of Holocaust survivor Paul Celan, the architecture of Albert Speer, and the Third Reich, but he also references theology, occult symbolism, alchemy, mysticism, and the Kabbalah. The weighty subject matter is often mirrored in the physicality of the works itself, which are often large scale and monumental. Epic in size and scope, Kiefer’s work become visions of the apocalyptic sublime. His paintings are mixed media endeavors, dense and heavy with impasto paint mixed with straw, dried flowers and plants, lead, sand, broken glass, ash, clay, shellac, gold leaf, copper wire, rusted metal, broken ceramics, woodcuts, charred photographs, and wood. Kiefer uses a variety of application and reduction techniques, including a blowtorch.
Some of Kiefer's early work. Click to enlarge the image.
In the 1990’s Kiefer’s focus grew from focusing on Germany’s role in civilization to the fate of art and culture in general. He began to explore universal myths of existence about the trauma experienced by all societies, from inevitable destruction to continued renewal and rebirth. By examining the past, Kiefer seeks personal, national, and universal healing and absolution of collective guilt. In 1999 the Japan Art Association awarded Kiefer the Praemium Imperiale for this lifetime achievements. The explanatory statement reads:
Kiefer worked with the conviction that art could heal a traumatized nation and a vexed, divided world . . . Only a few contemporary artists have such a pronounced sense of art's duty to engage the past and the ethical questions of the present, and are in the position to express the possibility of the absolution of guilt through human effort.
Some of Kiefer's later work. Click to enlarge the image.
Kiefer is known for keeping giant studio complexes which he turns into site specific monuments with his painting and sculpture. Most recently Kiefer purchased the decommissioned Mulheim-Karlich nuclear reactor plant. In 2010 Kiefer’s studio in Barjac, France was the subject of a documentary called Over Your Cities Grass Will Grow. The 35 hectare studio complex was built in the ruins of an abandoned silk factory. You can watch the documentary on Youtube. Here is a trailer for the film.
I first saw Anselm Kiefer's work sometime during the early or mid 1990's, either at the Cincinnati Art Museum or Atlanta's High Museum of Art. I have always been attracted to his willingness to tackle the big subjects, life, death, and the possibility of re-birth as well as his use of mixed media and his painterly technique. I also agree with Kiefer's stance on anti-art, that is he bemoans it, but acknowledges it's right to exist. For these reasons I am happy to call Anselm Kiefer both an influence and an ally.