Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a founding member of the German Expressionist group Die Brucke (The Bridge). Kirchner and many of his compatriots sensed the tension in air of pre World War One Germany, and they reflected it in their work. When war broke out, Kirchner, fearing being drafted into infantry, decided to enlist as an artillery driver. During the war he suffered a nervous breakdown and was put into a hospital. The post war years were likewise unkind to him, and he became depressed with the growth of Nazism and the condemnation of his work. 639 works of his was confiscated from German museums and galleries. Many were shown in the Entartete Kunst exhibit of 1937 and were subsequently sold off or destroyed. In 1938 Kirchner shot himself in a cabin outside Davos.
More work by Kirchner. Click to enlarge.
Emil Nolde, another Die Brucke painter, had a better fate. He managed to sit out World War One and his work met with success in the 1920’s. Nolde joined the Nazi Party in 1920, shortly after Hitler. Despite his support of the party, from 1935 on his work began to be confiscated from German museums, with 1,052 works removed in 1937 alone. Nolde’s work was featured prominently in the Entartete Kunst exhibit, with 29 pieces, more than any other artist in the show. In 1941 Nolde was told he was not allowed to paint anymore, even in private. Despite the order, Nolde continued to paint in private, mostly watercolors on scrap pieces of paper. He called these works his “Unpainted Pictures.”
More work by Emil Nolde. Click to enlarge.
I was heavily influenced by both of these artists early on. I liked their use of color and their championing of subjective expression. I also empathized with their stories. In Kirchner’s case, I related to his sensitivity to the environment, and in Nolde’s case, I liked that he felt compelled to paint, despite the risks involved in defying the Nazi government.